The stable development of the state implies the possibility of growth of industrial production, improvement of living standards of people subject while maintaining and improving the quality of the environment.
Environmental auditing is an independent, comprehensive, documented assessment, characterizing the degree of compliance of economic and other activity requirements, including standards and regulatory documents in the field of environmental protection, the requirements of international standards and to make recommendations for improving such activities.
It is extremely important for the economy, because it allows to reduce the information and the commercial risk associated with management decisions with a view to making recommendations on the efficient use of resources.
According to the World Bank:
- Possible increase in project costs associated with the assessment of environmental impact and subsequent environmental constraints into account, pays back an average of 5-7 years.
- The inclusion of environmental factors in the decision-making process at the design stage costs about 3-4 times cheaper than the subsequent installation of additional pollution control equipment
- The costs of eliminating the consequences of the use of non-environmental technology and equipment are 30-35 times higher than the cost that would be required for the development of clean technologies and the application of environmentally advanced equipment.
The widespread introduction of environmental management and environmental audit is due to two main reasons:
- environmental performance are becoming more important factor of competition in the modern market economy. Financial costs of the enterprise should be optimized, taking into account environmental factors;
- enhanced economic and administrative sanctions for violation of legislation in the field of environmental protection and environmental standards.
The objectives of environmental audit:
- improve the utilization of raw materials and energy resources, thereby reducing the negative impact on the environment;
- justify the need and the opportunity to concentrate efforts and resources on the highest priority areas and effective environmental activities
- To prevent cases of damage related to pollution and mismanagement of natural resources, thus reducing the economic risks;
Also plays an important role effective waste management – one of the essential conditions for the safe and lawful operation of the enterprise, allowing to solve the problems of siting industrial waste management and recycling, the consequence of which is the belief that the environmental safety of your company is at a high level:
Types and objectives of environmental auditing
Currently, there are several types of environmental audit differing range of the issues and objectives.
Audit of compliance with standards. It is carried out by comparing the environmental quality on the one hand and the provisions of national and international standards on the other. The purpose of this comparison – the definition of the necessary measures to bring the environmental performance of the enterprise in compliance with environmental quality.
Audit responsibility. As a result of the audit determined the risk of liability for damages caused to the environment.
Audit environmental insurance. It is produced in the preparation of insurance contracts, the development of plans of preventive measures to reduce environmental risks in assessing the damage when the insured event, when considering suits against companies over pollution.
The audit system of environmental certification. Produced for the purpose of conformity of assessment of certification objects and set of environmental requirements (standards, regulations).
Area audit. Produced to assess the ecological status of the territory.
The audit is carried out in the preparation of production sharing agreements. Is performed for better study from an environmental perspective of prospective investment targets, including the study of soil resources, flora and fauna. The task of the audit included an assessment of previous environmental damage, the cost of restoring damaged objects of the environment, the elimination of excessive costs of negative environmental impacts.
In the implementation of urban development activities documentation environment it is one of the essential parts of the project documentation, and the object of capital construction must comply with environmental standards.
- Environmental study – the basis of eco-efficiency and adequacy of compensation measures in the implementation of urban development activities that is developed as part of the urban construction justification in object placement and project planning area.
- Ecological and economic evaluation of the effectiveness of the investment project – helps to identify the possible consequences for the environment of its implementation, also it gives a clear picture of the investment costs necessary to ensure the environmental safety of the project under construction in the area in accordance with environmental regulations.
Project environmental documentation
- Project HSE – development of measures for environmental protection (EP) – one of the components of the project documentation for construction of enterprises, buildings and structures. Section HSE as part of the project documentation is a set of proposals for the rational use of natural resources in the construction and technical solutions that avoid the negative impact of the proposed facility on the environment.
- Project EIA – environmental impact assessment (EIA) is the process of integration of environmental requirements of the legislation of the Russian Federation in the training business, including pre, design and other solutions aimed at detecting and preventing unacceptable to society of environmental and related social , economic and other consequences of its implementation. During the EIA also estimated investment cost of environmental protection measures. Project EIA is a legal process that required the development of any project.
Environmental Regulatory Documents
- Develop draft norms – draft standards and disposal limits (DWGNDL) establishes the amount of waste disposal at certain sites of the temporary storage of waste on the premises, and other conditions ensuring the protection of the environment, taking into account the approved limits of waste disposal.
- Development of MPE – the project of maximum permissible emissions (MPE) – statutory release harmful pollutants into the atmosphere, which is set for stationary sources of air pollution.
- Develop a hazardous waste passports – the passport of hazardous waste set waste belonging tocertain type of waste and hazard class, as well as provide information on the composition of the waste.
- Development of passports of gas-cleaning unit (SEI) – a passport SEI contains information on the technical parameters of the SEI, describes the conditions and standards of operation of the gas cleaning plant.
- Development of production control procedure in the field of hazardous waste management. The procedure for production control in the field of waste management – a document defining the procedure for production control in the area of waste production and consumption.
- Development of the PDS – the draft standards of maximum permissible discharges (MPD) regulates the diversion into watercourses and water return flow, as well as various economic activities that have or may have an adverse impact on groundwater and surface water.
- Development of SPZ – SPZ Project is developed in order to support the proposed boundaries of the sanitary protection zone of the enterprise on the basis of the totality of the factors of its environmental impact. The project proposes measures to reduce this negative impact and provides suggestions for planning SPZ organization.